Cosmological Criticism: Part 3
This is part of a sequence on Cosmological argument.
The 2nd premise of Modal Cosmological argument is an argument from Contingency. It states that the Universe is contingent.
Fallacy of Composition: Even if we agree that all parts of the Universe is contingent, that doesn’t mean Universe as a whole is contingent. It’s possible for the necessary universe to be composed entirely of contingent parts.
Counter argument: If the Universe is non-contingent, then Universe either necessarily exist or impossible to exist. But the Universe exists. Which means Universe necessarily exists.
Which means it’s impossible for the Universe not to exist. To say that Universe’s existence is necessary is to say that its non-existence is impossible. If we can produce a logical contradiction then this impossibility will be easily recognized. For example: a square-circle is impossible because it’s self-contradictory.
Considering the Universe to be the whole of existence, the analytic truth[1a] is: [Nothing] doesn’t have the property of existence. It’s impossible for [Nothing] to exist. Therefore, there must necessarily exist something. Therefore it’s impossible for something (universe) not to exist. Therefore Universe necessarily exist.
Universe is not contingent.
Monogamy better than Polygamy for society
Monogamy reduces major social problems of polygamist cultures
In cultures that permit men to take multiple wives, the intra-sexual competition that occurs causes greater levels of crime, violence, poverty and gender inequality than in societies that institutionalized and practice monogamous marriage.
Why We Think Monogamy Is Normal?
4 witnesses necessary to prove Rape
Rape in Islamic sharia is equivalent with that of a Highway robbery. Hudud punishments are those punishments which are specified in Quran and Hadith. It needs 4 adult, male witnesses OR confession of the criminal to deliver prescribed Hudud punishment for adultery, rape, robbery etc. That’s the Islamic Sharia. Therefore, according to this divine law, Hudud punishment for rape which is death penalty could only be given in two cases:
1. Confession by the rapist, or
2. Testimony of 4 (adult, male) witnesses.
A raped woman’s accusation on another person is simply not enough. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 40, (Chapter: Regarding one deserving of the punishment coming to confess) Hadith 29, we read: Narrated Wa’il ibn Hujr:
When a woman went out in the time of the Prophet (pbuh) for prayer, a man attacked her and overpowered (raped) her. She shouted and he went off, and when a man came by, she said: That (man) did such and such to me. And when a company of the Emigrants came by, she said: That man did such and such to me.
They went and seized the man whom they thought had had intercourse withher and brought him to her. She said: Yes, this is he. Then they brought him to the Apostle of Allah (pbuh).
When he (the Prophet) was about to pass sentence, the man who (actually) had assaulted her stood up and said: Apostle of Allah, I am the man who did it to her. He (the Prophet) said to her: Go away, for Allah has forgiven you. But he told the man some good words (AbuDawud said: meaning the man who was seized), and of the man who had had intercourse with her, he said: Stone him to death.
He also said: He has repented to such an extent that if the people of Medina had repented similarly, it would have been accepted from them. Abu Dawud said: Asbat bin Nasr has also transmitted it from Simak.
In this particular Hadith we see, Muhammad was about to pass the judgement but didn’t do so until the rapist confessed of the crime. Only after the original rapist confessed did Muhammad deliver his verdict and sentenced the original rapist to death. This is an important to remember.
Proof of Zina (adultery) or Zina Bil-Jabr (rape) liable to Hadd shall be one of the following:
(a) The accused makes confession or
(b) There are at least four Muslim adult male witnesses
[source: Pakistan Hudood Ordinance VII of 1979 amended by Ordinance XX of 1980]
Proof of adultery or rape liable to Hadd shall be one of the following:
a. The accused makes confession, or
b. There are at least four Muslim adult male witnesses.
[source: Codified Islamic Law Volume 1, Law#133]
Punishment will take place when Zina or rape have been proved by witness.
[source: Codified Islamic Law #135]
Sharia Law rejects the witness of women in Hudood cases.
[source: Hanafi Law-Page 176, 353, Shafi’i Law- page 638 Law#o.24.9, Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World –page 251, The Penal Law of Islam – Kazi Publications Lahore- page 44, 45]
The evidence of women is originally inadmissible on account of their weakness of understanding, want of memory and incapacity of governing.
[source: The Penal Law of Islam – Kazi Publications Lahore- page 44 – 45]
What happens when the rapist do not confess or the raped woman is unable to provide 4 male witnesses?
The Qadhi (islamic judge) may consider Tazir punishments. The judge may accept other evidences such as DNA, circumstantial etc and deliver the Tazir. If rape is not proven then the judge may dismiss the case. Or, depending upon how fundamentalist The sharia court is…the judge may reject Tazir and dismiss the case because of lack of witnesses.
The raped woman then may get accused of adultery (zina) because she confessed of having a sexual intercourse or becomes pregnant as a result of rape. Then she might get stoned to death.
Water isn’t defiled by anything!
Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 1: Book of Purification, Hadith 66
Narrated Abu Sa’id al-Khudri
People asked the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) : Can we perform ablution out of the well of Buda’ah, which is a well into which menstrual clothes, dead dogs and stinking things were thrown?
He replied : Water is pure and is not defiled by anything.
Seriously Mo, as a messenger of God, spouting scientifically inaccurate views is the last thing you wanna do !!
Honor Killing in Islam
Islam gives tacit support to the despicable act known as honor killing. In Quran the story of Khidr depicts killing of a young boy because he was going to become an evil individual.
The arabic word Ghira has wide range of meanings. It could mean:
• Protective Jealousy
• A feeling of fury with great anger when one’s honor and prestige is challenged or injured.
According to islamic hadith, in Vol. 8, Book 82, Hadith 829 it was Narrated by Al-Mughira that:
Sa`d bin Ubada said, “If I found a man with my wife, I would kill him with the sharp side of my sword.” When the Prophet heard that he said, “Do you wonder at Sa`d’s sense of ghira (self-respect)? Verily, I have more sense of ghira than Sa`d, and Allah has more sense of ghira than I.”
More aHadith on Ghira.
Umar’s Refusal Of A Gift For His Wife
Ibn ‘Umar said:
Abu Moosa Al-Ash’ari gave a mat to ‘Umar’s wife ‘Aatikah Bint Zayd, and I think that it was one cubit and a handspan. ‘Umar saw it with her and said, “ Where did you get this from?
She said, “ Abu Moosa Al-Ash’ari gave it to me. ‘Umar took it and hit her with it, then he said, “ Bring Abu Moosa to me.
“So he was brought to him and he (Abu Moosa Al-Ash’ari) said, “Don’t be hasty, O’ Ameer Al-Mu’mineen (Leader of the believers).
‘Umar said, “ What madeyou give gifts to my womenfolk?” Then ‘Umar took it and hit him with it, and said, “Take it, we have no need for it.
[Taken from ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, His Life AndTimes, By ‘Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabi, Vol. I, Pp. 134-135 & 251]
A father who kills his child must NOT be subject to punishment (retaliation). The first text is “Umdat al-Saliq” or “Reliance of the Traveller”, a manual of Islamic law certified in 1991 as a reliable guide to Sunni Islam by Cairo’s renowned al-Azhar University, the most prestigious and authoritative institute ofSunni Islamic jurisprudence in the world. This manual, composed in the 14th century,states that punishment or “retaliation is obligatory against anyone who kills a human being purely intentionally and withoutright” EXCEPT when “a father or mother (or their fathers or mothers)” kills their “offspring, or offspring’s offspring” (section o1.1-2).
In other words, a parent who murders his/her child for the sake of honour, is not penalized under Islamic law or Shariah.
This book is by no means an irrelevant or outdated document, and its rulings, including those on the subject of retaliation for murder, are legally binding and not subject for debate.
Another text that supports the immunity for parents who kill their children was written by the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989), an authority of Shi’ite Islam who led the Iranian Islamic revolution in 1979. In his book “Resaleh Towzih Al-Massael” or “A Clarification of Questions” published in 1961, Khomeini specifies under “conditions of retaliation” (section 2.3 of Appendix II) that there is no penalty for a father who kills his child, the father will simply not be punished under Islamic law. A killer is punished if: “The slayer is not the father of the slain, nor the parental grandfather (apparently)”.
Both aforementioned Sunni and Shiite texts support the practice of honour killing in Islam, contrary to muslims’ claim, and serve as authentic and authoritative sources of Islamic law to this day.
Analytic thinking facilitates Atheism
As I previously expressed my interest in one blog post that I will be keeping an eye on the topic of human religiosity in spiritual & social context, couple of recent studies thus rightfully attracted my attention. The first one, as it appeared to me, understandably was all over atheist blogosphere. The article cites a study which says “Analytic Thinking Can Promote Atheism”. Deliberate analytical thinking could cause people to believe less in God. While religion entertains emotion and intuition, it’s the deliberately acquired cognitive thinking skill that enhances logical and rational disposition. I believe atheism is a direct result of this disposition.
Some other studies which were not so noticable in my atheist news feed were….
* Older People Hold Stronger Belief in God…Which is quite understandable. We are emotional being and don’t usually like the idea that we will cease to exist in near future. People would want to think of an eternal afterlife as they approach old age. It’s a very strong emotional feeling and an absolute trump card meme for religions to propagate. For atheists who don’t seriously entertain the notion of an afterlife, Transhumanistic ideas appeared in response to this inevitable end of our mortal lives.
* People exposed to death more likely to believe in God, study finds. Which is also pretty obvious. Fear, death and violence play major roles in believing in God and religion. One interesting tidbit I found from the article was that the Atheist countries operate at higher levels of mutual trust than religious societies. My two cents… in the absence of a supposed higher moral authority (which is nothing but wishful thinking), atheists generally are inclined to put their trust on other atheists’ judgement. I wish to write more about this in a future post.
For an elaborate explanation I recommend checking out Luke Muehlhauser’s article: The Cognitive Science of Rationality. Plus, an article which all atheists would just love to read again & again & again!!
Indian rationalist charged with Blasphemy
Dr. Sanal Edamaruku, a prominent Indian Rationalist, Skeptic and “Guru-Buster” was charged with blasphemy against christian church. He faces punishment (possible prison time) for busting the miracle catholic cross hoax…in India.
Wow…just wow! When it comes to using blasphemy laws, it seems christians are just as enthusiastic as muslims.
Another ex-muslim Atheist facing persecution in Turkey
Non-muslims, Ex-muslims and Atheists are getting persecuted all over the world especially in muslim majority countries where blasphemy laws have been enacted by the muslims to stop any kind of criticism of Islam. Latest victim, Fazil Say an ex-muslim atheist from Turkey. Weren’t we all quite sure of Turkey being the modern muslim secular democratic country? Well, guess we are wrong again just like we were about Indonesia and Malaysia.
And just like Hamza Kashgari, the Turkish pianist came under investigation over some harmless tweets. Surprising?…Hardly. Consider this verse from Quran:
Only recompense for those who wage war against allah and his messenger and strive in the earth spreading Fasad (mischief) is that they be killed or crucified or be cut off their hands and feet of opposite sides or they be exiled from the land, that is for them disgrace in the world and for them in the Hereafter is a punishment great.
I, as an ex-muslim know how dangerous it is to come out of the closet and declare yourself a Murtad in muslim countries. You risk losing not only your social but physical life as well. I wish Mr. Fazil all the best in his new life in Japan. At least he got the opportunity to move from the country and hopefully Japan would be the last country to extradite him like Malaysia for offending muslims.